Agriculture, Food Security,
Land Degradation, Forestry And Bio-Diversity
A variety of foods crops are produced in Nigeria, all
dependent on rainfall, so that where rain is abundant
(from the coast up to the Middle Belt, for example) crops
dependent on rain are planted, and in drier parts of the
country, crops that do not require much rain are cultivated.
Food production on the whole has not kept pace with Nigeria’s
Climate Change phenomenon affects agriculture in a number
of ways. For example, uncertainties in the onset of the
farming season, due to changes in rainfall characteristics
(early rains may not be sustained, and crops planted at
their instance may become smothered by heat waves) can
lead to an unusual sequence of crop planting and replanting
which may result in food shortages due to harvest failure.
Extreme weather events such as thunderstorms, heavy winds,
and floods, devastate farmlands and can lead to crop failure.
Pests and crop and diseases migrate in response to Climate
Changes and variations (e.g. the tsetse fly has extended
its range northward) and will potentially pose a threat
to livestock in the drier northern areas. It is estimated
that by 2100, Nigeria and other West African countries
are likely to have agricultural losses of up to 4 % of
GDP due to climate change (Mendelsohn, et al, 2000). Parts
of the country that experienced soil erosion and operate
rain-fed agriculture could have decline in agricultural
yield of up to 50 % between 2000 – 2020 due to increasing
impact of climate change (Agoumi, 2003; IPCC, 2007).